|Sažetak rada (hrvatski)|| |
Common cold is the most frequent illness among people. It affects all age groups
everywhere in the world. It is medically referred to as a viral upper respiratory tract
infection. Symptoms may include nasal congestion, runny nose, sneezing, sore throat
and cough. More than 200 different types of viruses are known to cause common cold,
but most often it is induced by rhinovirus. Influenza (flu) is a contagious respiratory
disease caused by influenza viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness, and can even
lead to death. Main symptoms are fever, chills, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy
nose, muscle and body aches, headaches and fatigue.
To prevent catching the flu or common cold, it is important to limit contact with
already ill people, wash hands as often as possible, keep fingers out of the eyes and
nose, avoid crowded spaces and ensure plenty of rest and sleep. Healthy diet, phytotherapy,
aromatherapy, apitherapy and homeopathy are also good ways of prevention.
Of course, the best way of preventing the flu is vaccination.
Once the illness has begun, the therapy employed is symptomatic. First, it is
important to drink plenty of liquids to prevent dehydration. If body temperature is
high, antipyretics are used, which also act as analgesics in cases of headache, muscle
ache and body ache. For sour throat, lozenges with antiseptic, antiphlogistic and pain
relieving properties are used. Decongestants are applied for runny and stuffy nose.
Depending on the type of cough, antitussives, expectorants or mucolytics are used.
Since common cold and flu are the most frequent diseases for which the patients
do not consult their doctors but their pharmacist, it is important to recognize the
symptoms and to differentiate common cold from influenza. To recommend the most
appropriate medicine in terms of duration and intensity of the symptoms, patient age
and existing medical conditions, professional advice regarding interactions and side
effects is required from the pharmacist.